Babies can get stuck at the shoulders during vaginal delivery and become seriously injured or die. This is called shoulder dystocia.
To prevent this, mothers with much larger babies that meet weight criteria will be offered a C-section delivery.
Fetal macrosomia -- or very large babies -- require C-sections to prevent getting stuck.
Sometimes babies that aren't very large will still get stuck.
In that situation, the providers have to quickly and properly execute the right maneuvers to successfully deliver the baby safely.
Sometimes significant traction, or force, is exerted on the neck while delivering the baby that is stuck at the shoulders. This traction can tear the nerves in the neck that lead to the arm.
Medical records should be reviewed to examine whether there was malpractice that led to the injury.